Rafael Bailón-Moreno, Encarnación Jurado-Alameda, Rosario Ruiz-Baños, Jean Pierre Courtial and Evaristo Jiménez-Contreras. The pulsing structure of science: Ortega y Gasset, Saint Matthew, fractality and transfractality.2007. Scientometrics. 71 (1), 3-24.
Abstract: By a new fractal/transfractal geometry of the Unified Scientometric Model, it is possible to demonstrate that science presents an oscillating or pulsing dynamic. It goes alternatively through two types of phases. Some phases are fractal, with crystalline networks, where the Matthew effect clearly manifests itself with regard to the most notable actors and those that provide the best contributions. The other phases are transfractal, with deformed, amorphous networks, in which the actors, considered mediocre, present greater capacity to restructure the network than the more renowned actors. The result after any transfractal deformation is a new crystalline fractal network. Behind this vision lies the Kuhn paradigms. As examples, the scientific fields of surfactants and autism have been analysed.